|> About LCM
Tel: +6 -019-9160861
Fax : +6-09-5662913
Partnership Official Website : www.lcm.my
What is LCM and how is it produced?
It is Mortar + Foam: It can be produced at the project site like ordinary concrete. The only difference is that it does not use coarse aggregate, but instead, uses pre-formed foam. This foam has no chemical action in concrete. It only serves as a temporary wrapping material for the air bubbles till cement mortar develops its own final set and strength. Hydrolysated protein base is mix and mash into a concentrated liquid call LCM Foaming agent is used to make the foam.
Free flowing & self compacting
This lightweight concrete has higher consistency due to absence of coarse aggregate (gravel) and a ball bearing effect on the concrete. This higher consistency is of great advantage for it flows by itself into the moulds and shuttering and any cavities, thereby doing away with the necessity of compaction or vibration.
The high stability of LCM Foam prevents a loss of volume during mixing, conveying (even pumping), pouring or during hardening process. The use of appropriate mould release agent has substantial influence on the surface finish of face cast against the mould. The curing of this concrete is as normal as it can be.
Wider density range
The entrained air with help of foam reduces density of concrete. The density would naturally depend on the extent of foam injected in the slurry. Foaming Generator enables accurate dozing of foam, thereby enabling production of wide range of controlled densities from 300 kg/cu.m to 1,800 kg/cu.m. The water absorption of LCM is also very low. It is in the range of 6.5% to 14% depending on the density.
Light and Flowing, A material for a wide range of purposes.
All you need to obtain foam concrete are a foam generator and a foaming agent, as foamed concrete is simply a mixture of a cement mortar slurry with foam, which can be prepared in an ordinary concrete mixer, or even without it, if only a small quantity of the material is necessary.
Thanks to that minor investment, you will have the opportunity to produce by yourself the material that can be used for the following purposes:
- ROOFING INSULATION - Low-density lightweight concrete has great thermal insulation properties
- TRENCH REINSTATEMENT - Lightweight concrete doesn't settle, requires no compaction and has excellent load spreading.
- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (panels, blocks, partitions, etc.) - Lightweight concrete density and therefore strength is adjustable during production and can be adjusted to the customer's choice of form and size.
- VOID FILLING - Lightweight concrete is very fluid and will fill every void, even in the most inaccessible areas. Can be applied through a very small opening.
- ROAD SUB-BASE - Lightweight concrete used in such purposes, prevents the road from subsiding into the soft earth it was built on.
- FLOOR CONSTRUCTION - Lightweight concrete levels, raises, isolates, speeds up and reduces the cost of making floors.
- FIRE BREAKS - Lightweight concrete is inflammable and therefore prevents fire from spreading when used to fill spaces between floors and ceilings.
Lightweight foam concrete's biggest advantage is the fact that it can be produced right on the spot of construction, which is possible thanks to the foam generator, a compact tool which ensures constant foam production and quality control. The produced LCM can be used for casting into the necessary shapes, or can be pumped straight to where it is required.
LCM Mixing Guide
Normal concrete will weight 2.4 kg per liter. ( 2400 kg /m3)
To know how to get the Density of lightweight concrete, it is usual to take 1 liter of the mix and weight it, cement, sand and water mix weights between 2 kg to 2.2 kg per liter. The trick is the combinations.
This is the density of cement and sand we call slurry. By adding the foam which is prepare with LCM Foaming generator. Shoot in the foam during mixing, this way you are actually aerating the slurry, so that the air entrapped by the foam is added into the cement mix to make it porous and this way you are making lightweight concrete.
To know exactly the design mix after adding the foam, you take 1 liter of the foamed concrete and weight it, if the mix weight 1.8 kg per liter, you have the 1800 kg /m3 density, if you want a lighter concrete, you add more foam into the mix. Note : Only 2 or 3 mix is justified by the same combinations.
Totally there are more then 48 types of design mix, the aeration with foam determine the density of the concrete. The amount of cement content in each mix will determine the compressive strength of each mix.
Compressive strength of 20 mpa at 28 days text has been achieved with a 1600 kg /m3 density. This high strength design mix is achieved with a 700 kg of cement content per meter cube with a 1 part cement and 2 part sand mix. Srength of LCM increases in time.
Using the same design mix above, you can still add extra foam to make a lower density mix. Density can be reduced to 1200 kg /m3. Note = Strength is reduced accordingly.
LCM 7-3 Design Mix for 1200 kg /m3.
The above mix is base on a medium strength design mix (LCM 1-2), every density mix can have 3 types of design mix depending on the cement content as well as strength requirement.
If using a low cement mix of 350 kg/m3, the cost of per m3 is reduced, the above mix is a 500 kg/m3. A 700 kg/m3 (LCM 1-1) cement content mix has a very high compressive strength.
Medium and high mix are for the casting of load bearing walls, foundation as well others high strength requirement projects.
Design Mix for a non-loading bearing wall or partition. Blocks and panels. Foundation bases. This depending on the cement content adjustment will result in a LCM strength of between 2 to 7 Mpa.
- Cement = 320 kg.
- Sand = 800 kg.
- Water = 150 liter.
- Foam = 450 liter
The above mix's a very low cost mix which strength increases in time but has a lower compressive strength reports.
LCM Design mix has a total of 48 Design mix.
(from 300 kg/m3 to 1800 kg /m3 @ x 3)
- Density 300 to 600 kg/m cubed = Thermal insulation for flat roofing with required gradient. Floor sub surfaces. Block in fills for sub-floor slabs. Cavity walls filling. General thermal and acoustic insulation. Heat insulating roof slabs.
- Density 600 to 900 kg/m cubed = Internal partition wall blocks and panels. Roofing slabs. Floor. Sub-surface for stables, pig sties and poultry farms. Walls, roof and floor sub-surface of large cool rooms. Facade panels. Trench reinstatement.
- Density 900 to 1200 kg/m cubed = External wall blocks and panels, both structural and non-structural. General sound proofing in industrial areas.
- Density 1200 to 1800 kg/m cubed = Medium weight blocks and slabs. Large reinforced slabs and panels. Walls, either pre cast or poured in situ. Garden ornaments.
Only sand, cement and water are mixed in accordance to the mix-chart recommended by LCM, taking into consideration the most suitable raw materials or those which are available.
The water/cement ratio should not be less than 0,35 before adding foam, too little water might cause the cement to draw its requirement from the foam, causing the latter to collapse partly or in total.
Different from conventional concrete, possible too much water does not necessarily influence LCM generally. Too much water would also create a void in LCM, but then LCM is full of voids/bubbles.
The mix (mortar) before adding foam should not "break" apart but remain a homogeneous mass. It should not be watery unless in densities below 1.000 kg/m?
If fiber (coconut fiber, palm oil fiber, glass fiber or others fibers) is used, it has to be added to the dry mix, after sand (1) and cement (2) have been added and firmly mixed, but before adding water, allowing the fibrillated fiber to "open up".
All containments such as mixer, buckets, molds etc., should be reasonably tight, preventing LCM from leaking. Most traditional molds (vertical) are tight enough to hold LCM. Small leakages are normally plugged with a wet piece of paper from a cement bag soaked before.
When casting walls/houses in-situ it is recommended to first cast a "kicker" for the mold to be firmly mounted against and preventing possible leakage and consequent lifting of the entire mold. Steel pieces are stuck into the still soft "kicker" to form the connection to the wall to be cast.
LCM requires no plaster (as in siporex-type cellular concrete). A usual water-repellent paint will do. Where desired, LCM holds plaster very well however. It offers superb adhesive properties, of great benefit when using tiles. It is also possible to apply wall-papers directly onto the surface.
Under floor Thermal Insulation is now available for new and existing timber floored houses, to help reduce heat loss and keep homes dry and comfortable. Dampness in houses with wooden floors that have little or no under floor insulation can be a difficult problem to treat. If it is allowed to continue long term it can lead to expensive repairs.
A very good answer is foam concrete. This is free flowing and easy to pump into confined areas such as the cavity beneath a wooden floor where poor ventilation and lack of sub-floor insulation, combined with damp ground create excessive water vapor transmission, or rising damp. Foam concrete readily flows to surround the piles and out to the foundations where it provides resistance to water vapors transmission. Access to the sub-floor area can be provided by removing vents from around the foundation, the manhole opening in the floor or through predrilled holes in places such as the bottom of wardrobes.
DANNY- Half Slab System and Fire Resistant Party Walls
This methods of casting slab is not new but using LCM to do it at 600 density as stay in place to replace styrofoam is.
As can be seen from this sequence construction images, they is no need for any formwork except some stand alone bracings, it's faster and cheaper.
The reinforce precast halfslab is precast and laid on top of LCM laod bearing cast in-place wall, 600 density blocks are place, and normal concrete is pour (the conventional way) on top.
Also the cast in place walls are with LCM formwork and can withstand 2 to 7 hours fire ratings depending on mix and density of LCM mix you decide.
It is at least 30% cheaper then brickworks and faster to construct and better heat insulation (save on air conditioningwith this 2 combine system) and sound proofings as well as acoustics.